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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2586\margr5075\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2586\margrsxn5075\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-470\slmult0\tx125 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\i0\expndtw-6 SAKYAS : DEMOCRATIC PROCEDURE         87\line \i\expndtw3 ut the Sakjas., etc.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri43\sb137\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 taddhist works naturally give us mote details \expndtw9 Sakyas, as the Buddha came of this stock, \expndtw8 .d that at the helm of the state was the Pre-\expndtw16 10 bore the title of \i Raja. \i0 It is uncertain}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb2\sa0\sl-240\slmult0\tx125 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw3 was drawn from one noble family only, and\line \expndtw5 period he was elected.    Thus, the Buddha's\line \expndtw-1 Idhodana, was a \i JLafd\sub y\nosupersub  \i0 and we also hear of his\line \expndtw0 addiya, holding this office. The business of the\line \expndtw-1 irried on in the open assemblies in \i Santhagdras\line \i0\expndtw10 alls, where the young and the old, the rich\line \expndtw4 or alike were present.    The Buddhist works}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri46\sb2\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 vivid idea of how deliberations were con-\expndtw5 these assemblies., which were modelled on \expndtw12 us \i Samghas\}- \i0 We learn that there were \expndtw11 icetings with proper seating arrangements \expndtw2 a special officer called \i dsanapanndpaka \i0 or \i\expndtw16 ipaka. \i0 Each meeting to be valid must \expndtw8 requisite number of members present, but \expndtw9 lan \i (Vinayadhara) \i0 was not counted for the \expndtw16 )f the quorum. It was the duty of the \i\expndtw14 napwaka) \i0 to complete the quorum by re-\expndtw12 g the presence of members. The business \expndtw16 th the formal presentation \i (sthdpanam) \i0\expndtw3 ion \i (natti otjndptt), \i0 which was followed by a 3n \i (anussdvanain). \i0 Discussion related to the \expndtw0 y, and all cantankerous and irrelevant talk was \expndtw5 .d checked. A resolution \i (pratijna] \i0 received \i\expndtw-3 y (jndpti-dvittya-kamma) \i0 and sometimes even \i\expndtw-4 rti-catuttha-kamma). \i0 Silence of the members \expndtw4 olution was regarded as assent, but in case \expndtw5 jment they had recourse to various devices,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li938\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx4418 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f3\cchs0\lang1033\fs10 J{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub *}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri70\sb355\sa0\sl-202\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs19 asval, \i Hindu Polity, \i0 pp. 103-17; \i Jour. \i0 U. P. \i Hist. Soc.\sub 9 \i0\nosupersub\expndtw4 7"ol. VII, pt. II, pp. 59-69; B. C. Law\sub ?\nosupersub  \i Ksatrzya Clans \expndtw2 ndia> \i0 pp. 110-119,}\par }